The Epidemiology of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria - A Twelve Year Review

UU Epundu, AL Ilika, CC Ibeh, AS Nwabueze, OF Emelumadu, CC Nnebue

Abstract


Background: About 140 million women worldwide have suffered genital mutilation. The practice is common in several African countries including Nigeria. This paper reviews the prevalence, distribution, causes, consequences and strategies for elimination and proffers solutions to aid elimination of this practice.

Methods: Relevant literature pertaining to female genital mutilation in Nigeria were obtained from journals, textbooks, selected documents and internet search of databases using Pubmed, Google scholar and African Journals Online. Cross referencing was used to identify additional articles. The study period was from 2004 to 2016.

Results: Female genital mutilation is a common practice in several parts of the country, especially the Southern geopolitical zones. Nationally representative surveys reported a gradual decline in the prevalence. The practice has several negative health and economic consequences. Culture and tradition are important factors fuelling its persistence.

Conclusion: Female genital mutilation is a crime against womanhood, posing a great health and financial burden to individuals, families and the society. Although its prevalence is on the decline in many parts of Nigeria, more sustained and coordinated efforts of stakeholders at all levels are needed to fast-track the elimination of this practice in Nigeria.


Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization. Female genital mutilation. A Joint WHO /UNICEF / UNFPA Statement. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 1997.

World Health Organization. Eliminating female genital mutilation: an interagency statement. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2008.

Assad MB. Female circumcision in Egypt: Social implications, current research and prospects for change. Stud Fam Plan. 1980; 11(1): 3-16.

Cutner W. Female genital mutilation. Obstet Gynaecol Surv. 1985; 40: 437-443.

Female Genital Cutting: Clinical management of circumcised women. Washington DC: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists; 2008.

Sipsma HL, Chen PG, Ofori-Atta A, Ilozumba UO, Karfo K, Bradley EH. Female genital cutting: current practices and beliefs in Western Africa. Bull World Health Organ. 2012; 90(2): 120-127F.

World Health Organization. An update on WHO’s work on female genital mutilation (FGM), progress report. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2011.

World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization. Understanding and addressing violence against women. Female genital mutilation. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2012.

Nour MN. Female Genital Cutting: A persisting practice. Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2008; 1(3):135-139.

Asekun-Olarinmoye EO, Amusan OA. The impact of health education on attitudes towards female genital mutilation (FGM) in a rural Nigerian community. Euro J Contracept Reprod Health Care. Sept 2008; 13(3):289-97.

Garba ID, Muhammed Z, Abubakar IS, Yakasai IA. Prevalence of female genital mutilation among female infants in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Arch Gynecol Obstet. Aug 2012; 286(2):423-428.

Awusi VO. Tradition versus Female circumcision: A study of female circumcision among the Isoko tribe of Delta State of Nigeria. Benin Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. 2009; 11(1):1-9.

WHO Elimination of FGM in Nigeria Plot 617/618 Diplomatic drive, Central District Abuja. Family Health Department, Federal Ministry of Health Phase II Federal Secretariat Abuja. 2007 Dec.

National Population Commission. 2006 Nigeria National Census Report.

National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and ICF International. 2014. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Abuja, Nigeria, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NPC and ICF International.

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). 2017. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2016-17, Survey Findings Report. Abuja, Nigeria: National Bureau of Statistics and United Nations Children’s Fund.

Mandara MU. Female genital Mutilation in Nigeria. Intl J Gynecol Obstet. 2004; 84(3):291-298.

Johnson OE, Okon RD. Perception and practice of female genital cutting in a rural community in Southern Nigeria. Af J Reprod Health. 2012; 16(4):132-139.

Osarumwese DO, Iyekoretin E. Female Genital Mutilation among Edo people: the complications and pattern of presentation at a pediatric surgery unit, Benin City. Af J Reprod Health. 2009; 13(1):17-25.

National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and ICF Macro. 2009. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2008. Abuja, Nigeria: National Population Commission and ICF Macro.

National Bureau of Statistics. 2008. Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2007. Final Report. Abuja, Nigeria: National Bureau of Statistics.

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). 2011. Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011, Main Report. Abuja, Nigeria: National Bureau of Statistics.

Adeokun LA, Oduwole M, Oronsaye F, Gbogboade AO, Aliyu N, Adekunle W, Sadiq G, Sutton I, Taiwo M. Trends in Female Circumcision between 1933 and 2003 in Osun and Ogun States, Nigeria. (A cohort Analysis). Afr J Reprod Health. 2006; 10(2): 48-56.

United Nations Children’s Fund. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change. UNICEF, New York, 2013.

Alo OA, Gbadebo B. Intergenerational attitude changes regarding female genital cutting in Nigeria. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011; 20(11):1655-1661.

Feyi-Waboso P, Akinbiyi A. Knowledge of, attitudes about and practice of female genital cutting in antenatal patients among Igbos in Nigeria. Journal of Gynecologic Surgery. Fall 2006; 22(3): 89-95.

Dattijo LM, Nyango DD, Osagie OE. Awareness and practice of female genital mutilation among expectant mothers in Jos University Teaching Hospital Jos, North Central Nigeria. Niger J Med. 2010; 19(3): 311-315.

Ezenyeaku CC, Okeke TC, Chigbu CO, Ikeako LC. Survey of women’s opinions on female genital mutilation in South East Nigeria: Study of patients attending antenatal clinic. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2011; 1(1): 15-20.

Abubakar I, Iliyasu Z, Kabir M, Uzoho CC, Abdulkadir MB. Knowledge, attitude and practice of female genital cutting among antenatal patients in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Niger J Med. 2004; 13(3): 254-259.

Onuh SO, Igberase GO, Umeora JOU, Okogbenin SA, Otoide VO, Gharoro EP. Female genital mutilation: knowledge, attitude and practice among nurses. J Natl Med Asso. 2006; 98(3): 409-414.

Berg RC, Denison E. A tradition in transition: Factors perpetuating and hindering the continuance of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) summarized in a systematic review. Health Care for Women International. Mar 2013; 34(10): 837-859.

Ekwueme OC, Ezegwui HU, Ezeoke U. Dispelling the myths and beliefs toward female genital cutting of woman: assessing general outpatient services at a tertiary health institution in Enugu state, Nigeria. East Afr J Public Health. 2010; 7(1): 64-67.

Adeneye AK, Oke EA, Adeneye AA. Knowledge of the health consequences of female genital mutilation in Bere Community, Oyo state, Nigeria. World Health and Population. Oct 2006; 1-7.

Ashimi AO, Amole TG. Perception and attitude of pregnant women in a rural community north-west Nigeria to female genital mutilation. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015 Mar; 291(3): 695-700.

The Donors Working Group on Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting. Platform for Action Towards the abandonment of female genital mutilation/ cutting (FGM/C). A matter of gender equality.

Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female genital mutilation. UNAIDS, UNDP, UNFPA, UNICEF, UNHCR, UNIFEM, WHO, FIGO, ICN, IOM, WCPT, WMA, MWIA. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2010.

Population Reference Bureau. Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting: Data and Trends. Update 2014.

Obi AO, Onoh RC. Urinary and Genital Tract Obstruction as a Complication of Female Genital Mutilation: Case Report and Literature Review. J Surg Tech Case Rep. 2012 Jan-Jun; 4(1): 64–66.

Osarumwense DO. Post genital mutilation giant clitoral epidermoid inclusion cyst in Benin City, Nigeria. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology. 2010; 23(6): 336-340.

WHO Study Group on Female Genital Mutilation and Obstetric Outcome. Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries. Lancet. 2006; 367(9525): 1835-1841.

Tukur J, Jido TA, Uzoho CC. The contribution of gishiri cut to vesicovaginal fistula in Birnin Kudu, Northern Nigeria. African Journal of Urology. 2006; 12(3): 121-125.

Monjok E, Essien JE, Holmes L. Female Genital Mutilation: potential for HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa and prospect for epidemiologic investigation. African Journal of Reproductive Health. Apr 2007; 11(1): 33-42.

Peters EJ, Immananagha KK, Essien OE, Ekott JU. Traditional healers’ practices and the spread of HIV/AIDS in South Eastern Nigeria. Tropical Doctor. 2004; 34(2): 79-82.

Ekenze SO, Ezegwui HU, Adiri CO. Genital lesions complicating female genital cutting in infancy: a hospital based study in south east Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics. 2007; 27: 285-290.

Adam T, Bathija H, Bishai D, Bonnenfant Y, Darwish M, Huntington D, Johansen E. Estimating the obstetric costs of female genital mutilation in six African countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2010; 88: 281-288.

World Health Organization. Sixty-First World Health Assembly: Resolutions and Decisions, WHA/61/2008/REC/1. May 2008, Geneva, Switzerland.

United Nations Population Fund and United Nations Children’s Fund. Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting: Accelerating Change. Summary report of Phase 1, 2008-2013. UNFPA-UNICEF 2014.

United Nations General Assembly resolution. Intensifying global efforts for the elimination of female genital mutilations, UN document A/RES/69/150. 18 December 2014, United Nations, New York.

United Nations General Assembly resolution. Intensifying global efforts for the elimination of female genital mutilations, UN document A/RES/67/146. 20 December 2012, United Nations, New York.

FIGO Committee for the study of ethical aspects of human reproduction and women’s health. Ethical issues in obstetrics and Gynaecology. October 2012

Ilika AL, Ilika UR. Eliminating gender based violence: Learning from the widowhood practices elimination initiative of a women organization in Ozubulu, Anambra State of Nigeria. African J Rep Health. 2005; 9(2): 65-75.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.