Gynaecological Malignant Tumours at Imo State University Teaching Hospital Orlu South Eastern Nigeria

JC Umeobika, LC Ikeako, CT Ezenyeaku, UI Ezebialu, EC Ojiyi

Abstract


Background: Gynaecological malignancies are important component of reproductive health and contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in women. They have a world-wide distribution which varies from region to region.

Objective: To determine the frequency and pattern of gynaecological malignancies at Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu South Eastern Nigeria.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients with histologically confirmed genital tract malignancies at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Imo State  University Teaching Hospital Orlu in South Eastern Nigeria from 1st of January, 2004 to 31st of December, 2013.

Results: Out of 218 cases of gynaecological malignancies, 131 (60.1%) were cervical cancer, 45(20.6%) were ovarian cancer, 23 (10.6%) were cancers of the corpus uteri, 12(5.5%) were choriocarcinoma, 11(5.1%) were endometrial cancers while vaginal cancer accounted for only 1 (0.5%). The age distribution was mainly within the 30-69 age range 184 (84.4%) with a peak occurrence at the 40-49 age group 75 (34.4%). The incidence of cervical and ovarian cancers peaked at 40-49 years with 52 (39.7%) and 11 (24.5%) of the individual cancers respectively. The gynaecological malignancies appeared to occur less at the extremes of age (<20 years and ≥70 years).

Conclusion: Cervical cancer was the commonest type of gynaecological malignancy in this study, despite the fact that it is the most preventable of all the gynaecological malignancies and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. Establishment of a nationwide health insurance scheme that covers cervical cancer screening and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination augmented by health education and awareness creation is very vital towards curbing this ugly trend.


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