Prevalence of Anaemia Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Positive Pregnant Women at Booking in Orlu, South-Eastern Nigeria

C Okeudo, BU Ezem, EC Ojiyi, EI Dike, FC Anolue

Abstract


Background: Anaemia is the most commonly encountered haematological abnormality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients with estimates climbing as high as 95% depending on clinical settings. The twin effects of HIV infection and anaemia in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia among HIV positive pregnant women at booking at Orlu, South-East Nigeria.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of the case records of women who were screened for Human Immunedeficiency Virus and anaemia at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital from 1st March 2008 to 28th February 2010 was done. Data on age, parity, educational status, marital status, haemoglobin concentration and retroviral status were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 13.
Results: Nine hundred and twenty one pregnant women were screened at booking within the study period. The age range of the women was  8-39years with a mean age of 28.22 ± 5.04years. One hundred and six (11.5%) of the women tested and were confirmed positive to HIV 1 & 2 antibodies. Anaemia was significantly higher among HIV positive pregnant women than in HIV negative pregnant women (75.5% vs 57.9%; P=0.001). Seventy seven point three percent (75/97) of women ≤ 20 years were anaemic. This was shown to be significant (P=0. 000). Three hundred and thirty three (69.2%) of the women that had only secondary education were significantly (P=0.000} more anaemic than those that had postsecondary education.
Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of anaemia among HIV positive pregnant women at booking at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital (IMSUTH, Orlu. Anaemia was also more significant in younger age (≤20years} and lesser educated women (only secondary

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